“This was one of the pioneering works in the history of paleoanthropology,” explains Madison. “Huxley’s argumentative strategy is wonderful. At a time when it was hard to get away from preconceived notions about human evolution, Huxley asks his readers to take a step back and imagine they were visitors from Saturn, ‘happily free from all personal interest.’ He lays out the facts concerning humans’ similarities to other apes and then asks the impartial scientific Saturnians, ‘Is Man so different from any of these Apes?’”

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